Forces and energy can be used to describe the behaviour of everything from the smallest building blocks of matter to the motion of planets and stars. Understanding forces and energy helps us to predict and control the behaviour of our environment. These ideas can be modelled and expressed formally, providing a consistent mathematical framework to describe physical systems. This has enabled some of society’s greatest scientific breakthroughs and engineering achievements. An understanding of forces and energy can help learners overcome future challenges and use our planet’s resources efficiently and sustainably, helping them become responsible citizens of Wales and the world.